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Dangerous goods are materials or items with hazardous properties which, if not properly controlled, present a potential hazard to human health and safety, infrastructure and/ or their means of transport.

The transportation of dangerous goods is controlled and governed by a variety of different regulatory regimes, operating at both the national and international levels. Prominent regulatory frameworks for the transportation of dangerous goods include the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, ICAO Technical Instructions, IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations and the IMO International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. Collectively, these regulatory regimes mandate the means by which dangerous goods are to be handled, packaged, labelled and transported.

Regulatory frameworks incorporate comprehensive classification systems of hazards to provide a taxonomy of dangerous goods. Classification of dangerous goods is broken down into nine classes according to the type of danger materials or items present, click on a class to read more details;

  1. Explosives
  2. Gases
  3. Flammable Liquids
  4. Flammable Solids
  5. Oxidizing Substances
  6. Toxic & Infectious Substances
  7. Radioactive Material
  8. Corrosives
  9. Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods


The multitude of dangerous goods regimes across the world and the complexity of dangerous goods classifications and regulations render compliance a particularly difficult task. However Chain Logistics Services, as a logistics company specialising in dangerous goods, is well placed to deliver tailored solutions to all customer dangerous goods needs.


Explosives are materials or items which have the ability to rapidly conflagrate or detonate as a consequence of chemical reaction.
Sub-DivisionsDivision 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard

Division 1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard

Division 1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both

Division 1.4: Substances and articles which present no significant hazard; only a small hazard in the event of ignition or initiation during transport with any effects largely confined to the package

Division 1.5: Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard

Division 1.6: Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard

Reason for Regulation

Explosives are capable by chemical reaction of producing gases at temperatures, pressures and speeds as to cause catastrophic damage through force and/or of producing otherwise hazardous amounts of heat, light, sound, gas or smoke.

Commonly Transported Explosives

  1. Ammunition/cartridges
  2. Fireworks/pyrotechnics
  3. Flares
  4. Blasting caps / detonators
  5. Fuse
  6. Primers
  7. Explosive charges (blasting, demolition etc)
  8. Detonating cord
  9. Air bag inflators
  10. Igniters
  11. Rockets
  12. TNT / TNT compositions
  13. RDX / RDX compositions
  14. PETN / PETN compositions
Gases are defined by dangerous goods regulations as substances which have a vapour pressure of 300 kPa or greater at 50°c or which are completely gaseous at 20°c at standard atmospheric pressure, and items containing these substances. The class encompasses compressed gases, liquefied gases, dissolved gases, refrigerated liquefied gases, mixtures of one or more gases with one or more vapours of substances of other classes, articles charged with a gas and aerosols.
Sub-DivisionsDivision 2.1: Flammable gases

Division 2.2: Non-flammable, non-toxic gases

Division 2.3: Toxic gases

Reason for Regulation

Gases are capable of posing serious hazards due to their flammability, potential as asphyxiants, ability to oxidize and/or their toxicity or corrosiveness to humans.

Commonly Transported Gases

  1. Aerosols
  2. Compressed air
  3. Hydrocarbon gas-powered devices
  4. Fire extinguishers
  5. Gas cartridges
  6. Fertilizer ammoniating solution
  7. Insecticide gases
  8. Refrigerant gases
  9. Lighters
  10. Acetylene / Oxyacetylene
  11. Carbon dioxide
  12. Helium / helium compounds
  13. Hydrogen / hydrogen compounds
  14. Oxygen / oxygen compounds
  15. Nitrogen / nitrogen compounds
  16. Natural gas
  17. Oil gas
  18. Petroleum gases
  19. Butane
  20. Propane
  21. Ethane
  22. Methane
  23. Dimethyl ether
  24. Propene / propylene
  25. Ethylene


Flammable liquids are defined by dangerous goods regulations as liquids, mixtures of liquids or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension which give off a flammable vapour (have a flash point) at temperatures of not more than 60-65°C, liquids offered for transport at temperatures at or above their flash point or substances transported at elevated temperatures in a liquid state and which give off a flammable vapour at a temperature at or below the maximum transport temperature.
Sub-DivisionsThere are no subdivisions within Class 3, Flammable Liquids.

Reason for Regulation

Flammable liquids are capable of posing serious hazards due to their volatility, combustibility and potential in causing or propagating severe conflagrations.

Commonly Transported Flammable Liquids

  1. Acetone / acetone oils
  2. Adhesives
  3. Paints / lacquers / varnishes
  4. Alcohols
  5. Perfumery products
  6. Gasoline / Petrol
  7. Diesel fuel
  8. Aviation fuel
  9. Liquid bio-fuels
  10. Coal tar / coal tar distillates
  11. Petroleum crude oil
  12. Petroleum distillates
  13. Gas oil
  14. Shale oil
  15. Heating oil
  16. Kerosene
  17. Resins
  18. Tars
  19. Turpentine
  20. Carbamate insecticides
  21. Organochlorine pesticides
  22. Organophosphorus pesticides
  23. Copper based pesticides
  24. Esters
  25. Ethers
  26. Ethanol
  27. Benzene
  28. Butanols
  29. Dichloropropenes
  30. Diethyl ether
  31. Isobutanols
  32. Isopropyls
  33. Methanol
  34. Octanes


Flammable solids are materials which, under conditions encountered in transport, are readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction, self-reactive substances which are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic reaction or solid desensitized explosives. Also included are substances which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal transport conditions, or to heating up in contact with air, and are consequently liable to catch fire and substances which emit flammable gases or become spontaneously flammable when in contact with water.
Sub-DivisionsDivision 4.1: Flammable solids

Division 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion

Division 4.3: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases

Reason for Regulation

Flammable solids are capable of posing serious hazards due to their volatility, combustibility and potential in causing or propagating severe conflagrations.

Commonly Transported Flammable Solids; Spontaneous Combustibles; Dangerous When Wet Materials

  1. Alkali metals
  2. Metal powders
  3. Aluminium phosphide
  4. Sodium batteries
  5. Sodium cells
  6. Firelighters
  7. Matches
  8. Calcium carbide
  9. Camphor
  10. Carbon
  11. Activated carbon
  12. Celluloid
  13. Cerium
  14. Copra
  15. Seed cake
  16. Oily cotton waste
  17. Desensitized explosives
  18. Oily fabrics
  19. Oily fibres
  20. Ferrocerium
  21. Iron oxide (spent
  22. Iron sponge/direct-reduced iron (spent)
  23. Metaldehyde
  24. Naphthalene
  25. Nitrocellulose
  26. Phosphorus
  27. Sulphur


Oxidizers are defined by dangerous goods regulations as substances which may cause or contribute to combustion, generally by yielding oxygen as a result of a redox chemical reaction. Organic peroxides are substances which may be considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide where one or both hydrogen atoms of the chemical structure have been replaced by organic radicals.
Sub-DivisionsDivision 5.1: Oxidizing substances

Division 5.1: Organic peroxides

Reason for Regulation

Oxidizers, although not necessarily combustible in themselves, can yield oxygen and in so doing cause or contribute to the combustion of other materials. Organic peroxides are thermally unstable and may exude heat whilst undergoing exothermic autocatalytic decomposition. Additionally, organic peroxides may be liable to explosive decomposition, burn rapidly, be sensitive to impact or friction, react dangerously with other substances or cause damage to eyes.

Commonly Transported Oxidizers; Organic Peroxides

  1. Chemical oxygen generators
  2. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers
  3. Chlorates
  4. Nitrates
  5. Nitrites
  6. Perchlorates
  7. Permanganates
  8. Persulphates
  9. Aluminium nitrate
  10. Ammonium dichromate
  11. Ammonium nitrate
  12. Ammonium persulphate
  13. Calcium hypochlorite
  14. Calcium nitrate
  15. Calcium peroxide
  16. Hydrogen peroxide
  17. Magnesium peroxide
  18. Lead nitrate
  19. Lithium hypochlorite
  20. Potassium chlorate
  21. Potassium nitrate
  22. Potassium chlorate
  23. Potassium perchlorate
  24. Potassium permanganate
  25. Sodium nitrate
  26. Sodium persulphate


Toxic substances are those which are liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm human health if swallowed, inhaled or by skin contact. Infectious substances are those which are known or can be reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Dangerous goods regulations define pathogens as microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites and fungi, or other agents which can cause disease in humans or animals.
Sub-DivisionsDivision 6.1: Toxic substances

Division 6.2: Infectious substances

Reason for Regulation

Toxic and infectious substances can pose significant risks to human and animal health upon contact.

Commonly Transported Toxic Substances; Infectious Substances

  1. Medical/Biomedical waste
  2. Clinical waste
  3. Biological cultures / samples / specimens
  4. Medical cultures / samples / specimens
  5. Tear gas substances
  6. Motor fuel anti-knock mixture
  7. Dyes
  8. Carbamate pesticides
  9. Alkaloids
  10. Allyls
  11. Acids
  12. Arsenates
  13. Arsenites
  14. Cyanides
  15. Thiols/mercaptans
  16. Cresols
  17. Barium compounds
  18. Arsenics / arsenic compounds
  19. Beryllium/ beryllium compounds
  20. Lead compounds
  21. Mercury compounds
  22. Nicotine / nicotine compounds
  23. Selenium compounds
  24. Antimony
  25. Ammonium metavanadate
  26. Adiponitrile
  27. Chloroform
  28. Dichloromethane
  29. Hexachlorophene
  30. Phenol
  31. Resorcinol


Dangerous goods regulations define radioactive material as any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity exceeds certain pre-defined values. A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus and which consequently is subject to radioactive decay.
Sub-DivisionsThere are no subdivisions within Class 7, Radioactive Material.

Reason for Regulation

Whilst undergoing radioactive decay radionuclides emit ionizing radiation, which presents potentially severe risks to human health.

Commonly Transported Radioactive Material

  1. Radioactive ores
  2. Medical isotopes
  3. Yellowcake
  4. Density gauges
  5. Mixed fission products
  6. Surface contaminated objects
  7. Caesium radionuclides / isotopes
  8. Iridium radionuclides / isotopes
  9. Americium radionuclides / isotopes
  10. Plutonium radionuclides / isotopes
  11. Radium radionuclides / isotopes
  12. Thorium radionuclides / isotopes
  13. Uranium radionuclides / isotopes
  14. Depleted uranium / depleted uranium products
  15. Uranium hexafluoride
  16. Enriched Uranium


Corrosives are substances which by chemical action degrade or disintegrate other materials upon contact.
Sub-DivisionsThere are no subdivisions within Class 8, Corrosives.

Reason for Regulation

Corrosives cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue or, in the case of leakage, damage or destroy surrounding materials.

Commonly Transported Corrosives

  1. Acids/acid solutions
  2. Batteries
  3. Battery fluid
  4. Fuel cell cartridges
  5. Dyes
  6. Fire extinguisher charges
  7. Formaldehyde
  8. Flux
  9. Paints
  10. Alkylphenols
  11. Amines
  12. Polyamines
  13. Sulphides
  14. Polysulphides
  15. Chlorides
  16. Chlorosilanes
  17. Bromine
  18. Cyclohexylamine
  19. Phenol / carbolic acid
  20. Hydrofluoric acid
  21. Hydrochloric acid
  22. Sulfuric acid
  23. Nitric acid
  24. Sludge acid
  25. Hydrogen fluoride
  26. Iodine
  27. Morpholine


Miscellaneous dangerous goods are substances and articles which during transport present a danger or hazard not covered by other classes. This class encompasses, but is not limited to, environmentally hazardous substances, substances that are transported at elevated temperatures, miscellaneous articles and substances, genetically modified organisms and micro-organisms and (depending on the method of transport) magnetized materials and aviation regulated substances.
Sub-DivisionsThere are no subdivisions within Class 9, Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods.

Reason for Regulation

Miscellaneous dangerous goods present a wide array of potential hazards to human health and safety, infrastructure and/ or their means of transport.

Commonly Transported Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods

  1. Dry ice / cardice / solid carbon dioxide
  2. Expandable polymeric beads / polystyrene beads
  3. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers
  4. Blue asbestos / crocidolite
  5. Lithium ion batteries
  6. Lithium metal batteries
  7. Battery powered equipment
  8. Battery powered vehicles
  9. Fuel cell engines
  10. Internal combustion engines
  11. Vehicles
  12. Magnetized material
  13. Dangerous goods in apparatus
  14. Dangerous goods in machinery
  15. Genetically modified organisms
  16. Genetically modified micro-organisms
  17. Chemical kits
  18. First aid kits
  19. Life saving appliances
  20. Air bag modules
  21. Seatbelt pretensioners
  22. Plastics moulding compound
  23. Castor bean plant products
  24. Polychlorinated biphenyls
  25. Polychlorinated terphenyls
  26. Dibromodifluoromethane
  27. Benzaldehyde

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